"The evidence keeps accumulating that a progenitor of syphilis came from the New World with Columbus' crew and rapidly evolved into the venereal disease that remains with us today." The appraisal was led by two of Armelagos' former graduate students at Emory: Molly Zuckerman, who is now an assistant professor at Mississippi State University, and Kristin Harper, currently a post-doctoral fellow at Columbia University.
Additional authors include Emory anthropologist John Kingston and Megan Harper from the University of Missouri.
Retain these abbreviations because the reader will need them to retrieve the source (you also do not need to define them—just present them as-is).
See more about this in our post on cite what you see.
by Chelsea Lee This post will address how to use abbreviations in APA Style—specifically, how to use acronyms, which are abbreviations made up of the first letters of each word in a phrase. You can find abbreviations discussed in the The first time you use an abbreviation in the text, present both the spelled-out version and the short form.
The treponemal family of bacteria causes syphilis and related diseases that share some symptoms but spread differently. Yaws and bejel, which occurred in early New World populations, are tropical diseases that are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or oral contact.
If you do use an abbreviation in a running head, you can use it straightaway without definition.
Instead, define the abbreviation the first time you use it in the text.
In general, it is not necessary to use abbreviations in the abstract because the abstract is so short.
However, if the abbreviation would help the reader recognize a term or find your article via search, then it is permissible to include an abbreviation in the abstract, even if it is not used three times.
Sometimes an abbreviation is presented along with an in-text citation.